Resilient control, Cyber-security, Cyber-physical systems, Healthcare Systems, Health-IoT, Vehicle Platooning, Connected Autonomous Vehicles
In today's world, the control of physical systems is no longer based on traditional methods, and all processes can be connected and controlled by communication links. These systems, which result from the integration and coordination of cyber and physical components, are called cyber-physical systems (CPS). These systems have numerous applications in real-life and industries such as mobility and transportation, health care, smart homes, and smart grids, to name a few.
Unfortunately, cyber-physical systems are vulnerable to cyber-attacks. An attacker can hijack the communication links and disrupt system performance. In recent years, different type of attack has been generated to damage cyber-physical systems, including DoS, Replay, Zero dynamic, and Covert attack. Each of these attacks needs access to specific communication links. Numerous cyber attacks have happened in recent years, including the Stuxnet attack. These attacks caused lots of financial and human losses. For example, Stuxnet caused severe damage to Iran's nuclear infrastructure and delayed Iran's nuclear program for two years. Detecting cyber attacks is a challenging research area. One of the main challenges in this area is dealing with unknown attacks. Every day, attackers find new attacks. Hence, Defense strategies should be able to detect attacks that have not yet happened.
Moreover, Some of the cyber attacks cannot be detected by simply monitoring available signals. Therefore, the attacker can easily damage the system without even being detected. Various strategies to make control systems resilient to cyber attacks have been proposed to overcome these problems, including W-MSR and reputation algorithms. The usage of defense algorithms improves the cyber security of the underlying CPS system. Nowadays, countries invest in finding proper defense strategies to prevent the catastrophic effects of cyber attacks.
In this workshop, first, the definition of cyber-physical systems and cyber-security is given. Then, the importance of ensuring security IIoT is discussed. Afterward, we went straight to the corresponding literature on cyber-security in CPSs by introducing various cyber-attacks based on the current categories. Moreover, we review state-of-the-art detection, prevention, and resilient control strategies. After that, we turn to the latest research on enhancing security in three main areas, including the coordinated movement of connected autonomous vehicles, healthcare, conventional, and power electronic-based power systems. Finally, we present two novel resilient control strategies to detect and mitigate deception and DoS attacks on a platoon of smart vehicles based on our latest research in this field.
The detailed agenda of the workshop is given as follows:
• Definition of Cyber-Physical Systems
• Definition of security in Cyber-Physical Systems
• Importance of Security in IIoT
• Enhancing security against cyber attacks:
- False data injection attack
- Zero dynamic attack
- Replay attack
- Denial of Service attack
- Covert attack
- Quasi-Covert attack
- Controllable Covert attacks in Multi-Agent Systems
• Overview of detection and resilient control strategies
• Applications of cyber-security in CPS
- Cyber-Security in connected autonomous vehicles
- Application of cyber-security in IoT based Health care
• Limitation of CPS in health care
• Concerns of CPS in heath care
• State of the art security methods in health care systems
- Cyber-Security in the conventional and power electronic-based power systems
- Cyber Security in Platoon Vehicles
• Effect of deception and DoS attacks on platoon vehicles
• Introducing detection and resilient control strategy based on switching systems
The materials outlined in the previous section will be delivered based on the following plan in seven parts:
Prof. Heidar Ali Talebi (Professor in Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University, Tehran, Iran)
In this section, the goals and generalities of the workshop are presented. First, the general definition of cyber-physical systems and their importance in control systems are examined. Then, Detection and resilient control approaches to detect and prevent cyber-attacks will be explained generally. In this section, participants are expected to grasp the general knowledge about cyber-physical systems and the corresponding cyber-security issues.
Dr. Iman Sharifi (Assistant Professor in Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University, Tehran, Iran)
Industrial processes are subject to different types of cyber-attacks. The attackers aim to mitigate the performance of the designed control systems, which further leads to catastrophic failures. To ensure safe operation of the system under attacks, it is acquired to develop resilient control strategies.
In this part, we aim to pinpoint security concerns in IIoT and 5G. Moreover, a comparison between communication layers and their susceptibility to cyber attacks is presented.
Elnaz Firouzmand (Ph.D. candidate in Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University, Tehran, Iran)
Kosar Behnia (Ph.D. candidate in Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University, Tehran, Iran)
First, this section examines various attack structures such as replay attacks, DoS attacks, (Quasi-)covert attacks, etc. The knowledge required to implement different attacks and the strengths and weaknesses of each type of attack is reviewed. Finally, various types of cyber-attacks are categorized.
Second, the importance of attack detection algorithms is stated, and algorithms to detect and prevent cyber-attacks, such as watermarking algorithms, will be examined. Moreover, suitable conditions for the effectiveness of detection and prevention algorithms are compared. To recap, resilient approaches, including graph-based methods, such as WMSR, reputation-based resilient control strategies, and techniques based on classic control theories, such as robust control methods, adaptive control, etc., are presented.
Dr. Mehran Dibaji (Research Affiliate of Massachusetts Instate of Technology (MIT) and Tokyo Tech Ambassador at Tokyo Institute of Technology, USA.)
In this presentation, we consider coordinated movement of a network of vehicles consisting of a bounded number of malicious agents, that is, vehicles must reach consensus in longitudinal position and a common predefined velocity. The motions of vehicles are modeled by double-integrator dynamics and communications over the network are asynchronous with delays. Each normal vehicle updates its states by utilizing the information it receives from vehicles in its vicinity. On the other hand, misbehaving vehicles make updates arbitrarily and might threaten the consensus within the network by intentionally changing their moving direction or broadcasting faulty information in their neighborhood. We propose an asynchronous updating strategy for normal vehicles, based on filtering extreme values received from neighboring vehicles, to save them from being misguided by malicious vehicles. We show that there
exist topological constraints on the network in terms of graph robustness under which the vehicles resiliently achieve coordinated movement. Numerical simulations are provided to evaluate the results.
Moh Kashani (Graduate Research Assistant in Lowa state university, USA)
The era of IoT and data is at its fastest as it has ever been. In the last decade with the rapid improvement in wireless communication, IoT is becoming a reality. One application of IoT is the healthcare system where patients can be monitored through some sensors. On one hand, Health-IoT has different concerns and has to satisfy higher Quality of Service (QoS). On the other hand, there are more limitations and security required than a standard IoT application. In this section a brief overview of security needs in healthcare is given, followed by what are the current state of the art methods to deliver security in IoT and Health-IoT and how they could impact Control loops. Last, the research gaps and potential improvements are discussed.
Dr. Hamid Reza Baghaei (Associate Research Professor in Department of Electrical Engineering of Amirkabir University of Technology and Iran Grid Secure Operation Research Center, Tehran, Iran)
With the increasing penetration of large-scale power electronics devices, including renewable generations interfaced with converters, the power systems become gradually power-electronics-dominant, and correspondingly, their dynamical behavior changes substantially. Due to the fast dynamics of converters, such as the AC current controller, the quasi-stationary state approximation, widely used in power systems, is no longer appropriate and should be reexamined. Besides, multi-microgrids (or microgrid clusters) consist of several individual (AC or DC) microgrids, which are connected through bidirectional interlink (DC/DC or AC/DC) converters. Despite these numerous advantages, e.g., increased reliability, designing and implementing an appropriate control, management, and protection system for multi-microgrids remain significant challenges. For the sake of smooth integration of distributed/renewable energy resources (DERs/RERs), energy storage systems (ESSs) and electric vehicles, and stable operation of the power grid, we require robust and reliable supervisory control based on the critical role of IoE in energy management and monitoring of the smart grids. In this regard, the IoE has revolutionized the research and practice of energy efficiency for industrial and smart city applications. The data exchange between grid components and data-driven solutions in smart grid operation will enable optimized bi-directional power flow between the utility grid and prosumers with RERs.
Along with building energy demand, the transport sector holds promise in achieving the overall optimization of the energy systems. This evolving set of grid component databases (gathered by smart meters, automatic meter readings (AMRs), intelligent electronic devices (IEDs), and phasor measurement units (PMUs)) can be exploited to develop data-driven solutions by combining AI and ML and data analytics. Useful information from this data can be extracted for grid operators using advanced data analysis tools. Microgrids can be considered cyber-physical systems (CPSs) due to implementing measurement devices, communication networks, and control layers. Consequently, microgrids are also vulnerable to different kinds of cyberattacks such as false data injection, denial of service, hijacking, deception, and replay attacks. Thus, new strategies for the detection and mitigation of cyberattacks are required. In this talk, we discuss the issues regarding the concepts of the Internet of microgrids, data-driven management of microgrids, and their cyber resiliency aspects.
Hassan Mokari (Ph.D. student in Computer Engineering at Polytechnique Montreal, Montreal, Canada)
Two major types of cyber attacks, including denial of service and deception attacks, can affect the performance of vehicles interacting with each other as a platoon. This negative impact can divert them from their correct routes by applying time-varying or time-invariant delay or false data injection according to DoS and deception attack, respectively. To guarantee the stability of the platoon, based on the communication protocol established among the smart vehicles in a platoon, a switching system will be a remarkable tool for designing a resilient strategy to counteract the aforementioned destructive factors.
The audience of this workshop includes enthusiastic students and educated researchers in the field of cyber-physical systems security, health care, power systems, autonomous vehicles, the Internet of Things, and the Industrial Internet of Things. Therefore, this workshop provides a rare opportunity to widen their knowledge by becoming familiar with the state-of-the-art algorithms in the field of cyber security for cyber-physical systems.
This workshop can also be beneficial for graduate and Ph.D. students. They can expand their horizons on communication issues and present more practical thesis and projects.
Professors can also share their knowledge and experience in this field by attending this workshop. Finally, Q&A provides a good opportunity to solve the audience’s problems.
At Robotic and Real-time Lab of the Electrical Engineering Department of Amirkabir University, we are pleased to cooperate with professional people, researchers, and students interested in researching this field. This workshop could be a great starting point for future collaborations!
• Robotic and Real-time Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering Amirkabir University
• 5th Industry Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering Amirkabir University
• Technology and Innovation Development Center
• IEEE Iran Section