Workshop 1
- Enhancing Security of Cyber-Physical System

Resilient control, Cyber-security, Cyber-physical systems, Healthcare Systems, Health-IoT, Vehicle Platooning, Connected Autonomous Vehicles

In today's world, the control of physical systems is no longer based on traditional methods, and all processes can be connected and controlled by communication links. These systems, which result from the integration and coordination of cyber and physical components, are called cyber-physical systems (CPS). These systems have numerous applications in real-life and industries such as mobility and transportation, health care, smart homes, and smart grids, to name a few.

Unfortunately, cyber-physical systems are vulnerable to cyber-attacks. An attacker can hijack the communication links and disrupt system performance. In recent years, different type of attack has been generated to damage cyber-physical systems, including DoS, Replay, Zero dynamic, and Covert attack. Each of these attacks needs access to specific communication links. Numerous cyber attacks have happened in recent years, including the Stuxnet attack. These attacks caused lots of financial and human losses. For example, Stuxnet caused severe damage to Iran's nuclear infrastructure and delayed Iran's nuclear program for two years. Detecting cyber attacks is a challenging research area. One of the main challenges in this area is dealing with unknown attacks. Every day, attackers find new attacks. Hence, Defense strategies should be able to detect attacks that have not yet happened.
Moreover, Some of the cyber attacks cannot be detected by simply monitoring available signals. Therefore, the attacker can easily damage the system without even being detected. Various strategies to make control systems resilient to cyber attacks have been proposed to overcome these problems, including W-MSR and reputation algorithms. The usage of defense algorithms improves the cyber security of the underlying CPS system. Nowadays, countries invest in finding proper defense strategies to prevent the catastrophic effects of cyber attacks.

In this workshop, first, the definition of cyber-physical systems and cyber-security is given. Then, the importance of ensuring security IIoT is discussed. Afterward, we went straight to the corresponding literature on cyber-security in CPSs by introducing various cyber-attacks based on the current categories. Moreover, we review state-of-the-art detection, prevention, and resilient control strategies. After that, we turn to the latest research on enhancing security in three main areas, including the coordinated movement of connected autonomous vehicles, healthcare, conventional, and power electronic-based power systems. Finally, we present two novel resilient control strategies to detect and mitigate deception and DoS attacks on a platoon of smart vehicles based on our latest research in this field.
The detailed agenda of the workshop is given as follows:

• Definition of Cyber-Physical Systems
• Definition of security in Cyber-Physical Systems
• Importance of Security in IIoT
• Enhancing security against cyber attacks:
- False data injection attack
- Zero dynamic attack
- Replay attack
- Denial of Service attack
- Covert attack
- Quasi-Covert attack
- Controllable Covert attacks in Multi-Agent Systems
• Overview of detection and resilient control strategies
• Applications of cyber-security in CPS
- Cyber-Security in connected autonomous vehicles
- Application of cyber-security in IoT based Health care
• Limitation of CPS in health care
• Concerns of CPS in heath care
• State of the art security methods in health care systems
- Cyber-Security in the conventional and power electronic-based power systems
- Cyber Security in Platoon Vehicles
• Effect of deception and DoS attacks on platoon vehicles
• Introducing detection and resilient control strategy based on switching systems

The materials outlined in the previous section will be delivered based on the following plan in seven parts:

Prof. Heidar Ali Talebi (Professor in Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University, Tehran, Iran)

In this section, the goals and generalities of the workshop are presented. First, the general definition of cyber-physical systems and their importance in control systems are examined. Then, Detection and resilient control approaches to detect and prevent cyber-attacks will be explained generally. In this section, participants are expected to grasp the general knowledge about cyber-physical systems and the corresponding cyber-security issues.

Dr. Iman Sharifi (Assistant Professor in Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University, Tehran, Iran)

Industrial processes are subject to different types of cyber-attacks. The attackers aim to mitigate the performance of the designed control systems, which further leads to catastrophic failures. To ensure safe operation of the system under attacks, it is acquired to develop resilient control strategies.
In this part, we aim to pinpoint security concerns in IIoT and 5G. Moreover, a comparison between communication layers and their susceptibility to cyber attacks is presented.

Elnaz Firouzmand (Ph.D. candidate in Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University, Tehran, Iran)

Kosar Behnia (Ph.D. candidate in Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University, Tehran, Iran)

First, this section examines various attack structures such as replay attacks, DoS attacks, (Quasi-)covert attacks, etc. The knowledge required to implement different attacks and the strengths and weaknesses of each type of attack is reviewed. Finally, various types of cyber-attacks are categorized.
Second, the importance of attack detection algorithms is stated, and algorithms to detect and prevent cyber-attacks, such as watermarking algorithms, will be examined. Moreover, suitable conditions for the effectiveness of detection and prevention algorithms are compared. To recap, resilient approaches, including graph-based methods, such as WMSR, reputation-based resilient control strategies, and techniques based on classic control theories, such as robust control methods, adaptive control, etc., are presented.

Dr. Mehran Dibaji (Research Affiliate of Massachusetts Instate of Technology (MIT) and Tokyo Tech Ambassador at Tokyo Institute of Technology, USA.)

In this presentation, we consider coordinated movement of a network of vehicles consisting of a bounded number of malicious agents, that is, vehicles must reach consensus in longitudinal position and a common predefined velocity. The motions of vehicles are modeled by double-integrator dynamics and communications over the network are asynchronous with delays. Each normal vehicle updates its states by utilizing the information it receives from vehicles in its vicinity. On the other hand, misbehaving vehicles make updates arbitrarily and might threaten the consensus within the network by intentionally changing their moving direction or broadcasting faulty information in their neighborhood. We propose an asynchronous updating strategy for normal vehicles, based on filtering extreme values received from neighboring vehicles, to save them from being misguided by malicious vehicles. We show that there
exist topological constraints on the network in terms of graph robustness under which the vehicles resiliently achieve coordinated movement. Numerical simulations are provided to evaluate the results.

Moh Kashani (Graduate Research Assistant in Lowa state university, USA)

The era of IoT and data is at its fastest as it has ever been. In the last decade with the rapid improvement in wireless communication, IoT is becoming a reality. One application of IoT is the healthcare system where patients can be monitored through some sensors. On one hand, Health-IoT has different concerns and has to satisfy higher Quality of Service (QoS). On the other hand, there are more limitations and security required than a standard IoT application. In this section a brief overview of security needs in healthcare is given, followed by what are the current state of the art methods to deliver security in IoT and Health-IoT and how they could impact Control loops. Last, the research gaps and potential improvements are discussed.

Dr. Hamid Reza Baghaei (Associate Research Professor in Department of Electrical Engineering of Amirkabir University of Technology and Iran Grid Secure Operation Research Center, Tehran, Iran)

With the increasing penetration of large-scale power electronics devices, including renewable generations interfaced with converters, the power systems become gradually power-electronics-dominant, and correspondingly, their dynamical behavior changes substantially. Due to the fast dynamics of converters, such as the AC current controller, the quasi-stationary state approximation, widely used in power systems, is no longer appropriate and should be reexamined. Besides, multi-microgrids (or microgrid clusters) consist of several individual (AC or DC) microgrids, which are connected through bidirectional interlink (DC/DC or AC/DC) converters. Despite these numerous advantages, e.g., increased reliability, designing and implementing an appropriate control, management, and protection system for multi-microgrids remain significant challenges. For the sake of smooth integration of distributed/renewable energy resources (DERs/RERs), energy storage systems (ESSs) and electric vehicles, and stable operation of the power grid, we require robust and reliable supervisory control based on the critical role of IoE in energy management and monitoring of the smart grids. In this regard, the IoE has revolutionized the research and practice of energy efficiency for industrial and smart city applications. The data exchange between grid components and data-driven solutions in smart grid operation will enable optimized bi-directional power flow between the utility grid and prosumers with RERs.
Along with building energy demand, the transport sector holds promise in achieving the overall optimization of the energy systems. This evolving set of grid component databases (gathered by smart meters, automatic meter readings (AMRs), intelligent electronic devices (IEDs), and phasor measurement units (PMUs)) can be exploited to develop data-driven solutions by combining AI and ML and data analytics. Useful information from this data can be extracted for grid operators using advanced data analysis tools. Microgrids can be considered cyber-physical systems (CPSs) due to implementing measurement devices, communication networks, and control layers. Consequently, microgrids are also vulnerable to different kinds of cyberattacks such as false data injection, denial of service, hijacking, deception, and replay attacks. Thus, new strategies for the detection and mitigation of cyberattacks are required. In this talk, we discuss the issues regarding the concepts of the Internet of microgrids, data-driven management of microgrids, and their cyber resiliency aspects.

Hassan Mokari (Ph.D. student in Computer Engineering at Polytechnique Montreal, Montreal, Canada)

Two major types of cyber attacks, including denial of service and deception attacks, can affect the performance of vehicles interacting with each other as a platoon. This negative impact can divert them from their correct routes by applying time-varying or time-invariant delay or false data injection according to DoS and deception attack, respectively. To guarantee the stability of the platoon, based on the communication protocol established among the smart vehicles in a platoon, a switching system will be a remarkable tool for designing a resilient strategy to counteract the aforementioned destructive factors.

The audience of this workshop includes enthusiastic students and educated researchers in the field of cyber-physical systems security, health care, power systems, autonomous vehicles, the Internet of Things, and the Industrial Internet of Things. Therefore, this workshop provides a rare opportunity to widen their knowledge by becoming familiar with the state-of-the-art algorithms in the field of cyber security for cyber-physical systems.
This workshop can also be beneficial for graduate and Ph.D. students. They can expand their horizons on communication issues and present more practical thesis and projects.
Professors can also share their knowledge and experience in this field by attending this workshop. Finally, Q&A provides a good opportunity to solve the audience’s problems.
At Robotic and Real-time Lab of the Electrical Engineering Department of Amirkabir University, we are pleased to cooperate with professional people, researchers, and students interested in researching this field. This workshop could be a great starting point for future collaborations!

Organizers:
• Robotic and Real-time Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering Amirkabir University
• 5th Industry Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering Amirkabir University
• Technology and Innovation Development Center
• IEEE Iran Section

Workshop 1
- Speakers

Prof. Heidar Ali Talebi (Professor in Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University, Tehran, Iran)

Heidar Ali Talebi received his BS degree in Electronics from Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran, in 1988, MSc degree in Electronics (with first class honours) from Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran, in 1991, and his PhD degree in Electrical and Computer Engineering from Concordia University, Montreal, QC, Canada, in 1997. He held several postdoctoral and research positions at Concordia University and University of Western Ontario, before joining Amirkabir University of Technology in 1999 where he is currently a professor. From 2002 to 2004, he also served as the Head of Control Systems Group in Amirkabir University. His research interests include control, robotics, fault diagnosis and recovery, intelligent systems, adaptive control, nonlinear control and real-time systems.

Dr. Iman Sharifi (Assistant Professor in Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University, Tehran, Iran)

Iman Sharifi received his B.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering from Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran, in 2009. He was exempt from national M.Sc. entrance exam, as a talented student. He also received the M.Sc. degree as first ranked student in Electrical Engineering from Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran, in 2012. Therefore, he exempted from national PhD entrance exam as talented student. He is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree in the Center of Excellence of Robotics and Nonlinear Control at Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran. Moreover, he is a visiting doctoral researcher in the Telerobotic and Biorobotic Systems Lab of University of Alberta, Canada. His research interests are Nonlinear Control Systems, Medical Teleoperation Systems (Tele-rehabilitation and Tele-surgery), Real-time Computing Systems, Embedded Systems Based on New OS such as Android.

Elnaz Firouzmand (Ph.D. candidate in Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University, Tehran, Iran)

Elnaz Firouzmand received her B.Sc. degrees in both Electrical Engineering and Biomedical Engineering from Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT), Tehran, Iran, in 2017 and 2018. As a talented student, she was exempt from national M.Sc. and Ph.D. entrance exams and got acceptance in M.Sc. and Ph.D. in control systems from Electrical Engineering of AUT, in 2017 and 2020, respectively. She is currently working toward her Ph.D. degree under supervision of Professor H.A. Talebi and Dr. Iman Sharifi. Her research interests are autonomous vehicles, cyber-security of platoon vehicles and formal method based control.

Kosar Behnia (Ph.D. candidate in Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University, Tehran, Iran)

Kosar Behnia received the B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering from Amirkabir University of Technology,Tehran, Iran in 2018 and 2020 respectively. She is currently a PhD researcher at the Amirkabir University of Technology. Her research interests include machine Learning, artificial intelligence and cyber-security.

Dr. Mehran Dibaji (Research Affiliate of Massachusetts Instate of Technology (MIT) and Tokyo Tech Ambassador at Tokyo Institute of Technology, USA.)

Seyed Mehran Dibaji received the B.Sc. degrees in electrical engineering and in applied mathematics and M.Sc. degree in electrical and control engineering, all from Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran, in 2009, 2012, and 2012, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree in computational intelligence and systems science from the Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan, where his dissertation was about resilient consensus of multiagent systems. Dr. Dibaji is currently a Postdoctoral Associate in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA, where he is working on distributed control of power systems. His research interests include resilient control of networks, control of power systems, cyber-physical systems, and distributed algorithms.

Moh Kashani (Graduate Research Assistant in Lowa state university, USA)

Moh Kashani is a graduate assistant at Iowa State University. Currently researching physical layer security of healthcare sensors. He has received a bachelor of science from AmirKabir University of Technology in Electrical engineering. His research interests are Cyber Security, Quantum computers, Machine Learning, and Robotics.

Dr. Hamid Reza Baghaei, Iran Grid Secure Operation Research Center, Electrical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology

Hamid Reza Baghaee received his Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from Amirkabir University Technology (AUT) in 2017. From 2007 to 2017, he was a teaching and research assistant in the department of electrical engineering of AUT. He is the author of two books, three published book chapters, 80 ISI-ranked journal papers (mostly in IEEE, IET, and Elsevier journals), 55 conference papers, and the owner of a registered patent. In November 2021, his book entitled “Microgrids and Methods of Analysis” was selected by the Technical Committee of Iran Ministry of Energy (MOE) as the “Best Book of the year in Power and Energy Industry.” He has many HOT and HIGHLY-CITED papers among his journal papers, based on SciVal and Web of Science statistics. His special fields of interest are micro and smart grids, cyber-physical systems, application of power electronics in power systems, distributed generation, and renewable energy resources, FACTS CUSTOM Power devices and HVDC systems, power system operation and control, real-time simulation of power systems, microgrids, and power electronic converters, and application of artificial intelligence in power systems. Dr. Baghaee is also the winner of four national and international prizes, as the best dissertation award, from the Iranian scientific organization of smart grids (ISOSG) in December 2017, Iranian energy association (IEA) in February 2018, AUT in December 2018, and IEEE Iran Section in May 2019 for his Ph.D. dissertation. In August 2019, he joined AUT as an associate research professor in the department of electrical engineering. He is the project coordinator of the AUT Pilot Microgrid Project as one of the sub-projects of the Iran Grand (National) Smart Grid Project. He has been a co-supervisor of more than Ph.D. and M.Sc. students since 2017. He was a short-term scientist with CERN and ABB, Switzerland. He was selected as the top 1% reviewer of engineering in September 2018 and the top 1% reviewer of engineering and cross-field in September 2019. Dr. Baghaee is a member and secretary chair at the IEEE Iran Section communication committee and member of IEEE, IEEE Smart Grid Community, IEEE Internet of Things Technical Community, IEEE Big Data Community, IEEE Smart Cities Community, and IEEE Sensors Council. Since August 2021, he has been elected as a member of the board and chairman of the committee on publications and conferences at the Iran Scientific Organization of Smart Grids (ISOSG) and a member of the IEEE PES Transmission Subcommittee, and its working groups of Reliability impacts of inverter-based resources, Generation and Energy Storage Integration, Voltage Optimization, and transmission power system switching working group, IEEE PES Subcommittee on Big Data & Analytics for Power Systems, and IEEE PES Task Force on Application of Big Data Analytic on Transmission System Dynamic Security Assessment, IEEE PES Task Force on “Resilient and Secure Large-Scale Energy Internet Systems (RSEI), and IEEE taskforce on Microgrid Design. He is also the reviewer of several IEEE and IET journals, and guest editor of several special issues in IEEE, IET, Elsevier, MDPI, and scientific program committees of several IEEE conferences. From December 2020, he has served as an associate editor of the IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, and the IET Journal of engineering. He has also been selected as the best and outstanding review of several journals such as IEEE Transactions on Power System (Top 0.66% of reviewers, in 2020), Elsevier Control Engineering Practice (in 2018, 2019, and 2020), and Wiley International Transaction on Electrical Energy Systems in 2020, and the Pablon best reviewer in Engineering (in 2018), and both engineering and cross-field (in 2019). He has been selected as the Star Reviewer of IEEE JESTPE and IEEE Power Electronics Society in 2020, commemorated, and presented during the IEEE ECCE 2021 conference in October in Vancouver, Canada. He has also been listed in the 2020 edition of the top 2% scientists in the field of ENERGY according to the “Science Wide Author Databases of Standardized Citation Indicators.”

Hassan Mokari (Ph.D. student in Computer Engineering at Polytechnique Montreal, Montreal, Canada)

Hassan Mokari is currently a Ph.D. student in Computer Engineering at Polytechnique Montreal, Montreal, Canada. He received his M.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering-Control from Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT), Tehran, Iran in 2021. Also, he received his B.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering from Yazd University, Yazd, Iran, in 2018. His main research interests are: Vehicle Platooning, Cyber Security, Artificial intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning, Resilient Control, and Robotics

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