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Workshop IV
- Cyber-Security of Autonomous Vehicle Platooning

• Robotic and Real-time Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering Amirkabir University
• Technology and Innovation Development Center
• IEEE Iran Section

• Prof. Heidar Ali Talebi (Professor)
• Dr. Iman Sharifi (Assistant Professor)
• Dr. Mehran Dibaji (PhD)

• Kosar Behnia (PhD student)
• Elnaz Firouzmand (PhD student
More Info: Next page!

Platoon, Resilient control, Cyber-security, Cyber-physical systems, Autonomous vehicles

In this Workshop, we start with the definition of platoon vehicles and their communication structures. Then, we do a comprehensive talk about cyber-security and cyber-attacks and the main steps in designing resilient and secure control strategies. Finally, the simulation and implementation of secure platoon is/will be presented. The main agenda of the workshop is given as follows:

• Platoon vehicles
‌ - What is autonomous vehicle platooning?
‌ - Pros and Cons
‌ - Different communication network structures
‌ - Communication security issues in platooning
• Cyber-Security
‌ - What is Cyber-Security?
‌ - Goal of Cyber-Attacks
‌ - Classification of Attacks
‌ - Attack Models and Different types of Attacks
‌ - Attack detection strategies
‌ - Designing Resilient control strategies
• Case study and paper presentation
‌ - Platoon mathematical modeling
‍ - Attack model
‌ - Resilient control strategy
‌ - Simulation and implementation

In today world, the control of physical systems is no longer based on traditional methods and all of the processes can be connected and controlled by the communication links. These systems which are resulted from the integration and coordination of cyber and physical component are called cyber-Physical system (CPS). These systems have numerous applications in real-life and industries such as mobility and transportation, health care, smart homes and smart grids, to name a few. Recently, due to energy consumption and traffic congestions, smart transportation is becoming one of the trending field both in the academic areas and industries. A great deal of research has been put into investigation to transform the traditional way of driving and transportation to the new generation of self-driving cars. Currently, Google and Tesla are actively focusing on this field. In fact, smart mobility is broader than the ability of designing an autonomous (semi-autonomous) car. Smart cars can be much beneficial while they are connected in the road. Platoon vehicles are one of the most promising avenues towards this goal. Vehicle platooning is referring to a group of cars travelling together with the minimum distance and specified velocity. SCANIA, Energy ITS, GCDC and PATH are some of the notable projects around the world which are about vehicle platooning.

The connectivity of vehicles in a platoon and the information flow are realized in the cyber space. Communication topologies between a leader and followers in the platoon might be unidirectional, bidirectional or Leader-Predecessor. The longitudinal control of vehicles can be done through the mentioned communication links either in one platoon or multiple mini-platoons. However, these communication links are prone to cyber-attacks such as jamming, DoS, False Date injection, covert and etc. Security of vehicle platooning is highly dependent on the secure communication infrastructures. Any intrusion in the cyber components can be perilous to the passengers’ safety and cause faults and failures on the vehicles and related physical infrastructures. Therefore, providing a secure information links between vehicles is a major issue which cannot be completely addressed via current information security methods such as authentication, access control, message integrity. In fact, much higher degree of protection is acquired while designing a CPSs. Attack Detection, Identification, Mitigation and resilient controllers are the key toward reaching safe CPSs such as in autonomous vehicle platooning.

The audience of this workshop includes enthusiastic students and educated researchers in the field of cyber physical systems security, autonomous vehicles and Internet of Things. Therefore, this workshop provides a rare opportunity to widen their knowledge by becoming familiar with the state-of-the-art algorithms in the field of cyber security for cyber physical systems with the concentration on autonomous vehicle platooning.

Moreover, Industry and start-ups activist in mobility and smart transportation can get comprehensive information on the current challenges toward cyber security in platoon cars. Without a doubt, this will give them an opportunity to take a step toward solving cyber security issues to design a secure and resilient control systems.

This workshop can also be very helpful for graduate and PhD students. They can expand their horizons on the communication issues and present more practical thesis and projects. Professors can also share their knowledge and experience in this field by attending this workshop. Finally, Q&A provides a good opportunity to solve the audience’s problems. At Robotic and Real-time Lab of Electrical Engineering Department of Amirkabir University, we are pleased to cooperate with professional people, researchers and those students who are interested in doing research in this field and this workshop could be a great starting point for future collaborations!

Workshop IV
- Detailed Subjects of Talks

The materials outlined in the previous section will be delivered based on the following plan in four parts, with approximately one hour for each section.

Prof. Heidar Ali Talebi, Amirkabir University of Technology

Introduction to Workshop and Opening Talk
Platooning of connected vehicles is one of the recent approaches in traffic management in smart transportation. The connection of the vehicles are realized through different types of communication channels which are susceptible to cyber-attack. In the introduction part, first the general structure of platoons, their communication topology and the attacks, which are specific to the platoons, will be presented. Afterwards, the classification of attacks according to the control theories will be stated. Detection and resilient control approaches to detect and prevent cyber-attacks will be examined, thoroughly. Participants are expected to grasp the overall knowledge about platoons and the corresponding cyber-security issues as well as become familiar with the state-of-the-art attack detection and resilient control strategies.

Elnaz Firouzmand, Amirkabir University of Technology

Platooning and Cyber Attacks

Platooning refers to a cooperative driving pattern where the distance among the vehicles are defined a-priori. Platoons play an essential role in increasing road capacity and safety. Furthermore, it leads to better management of traffic and energy consumption. To implement the desired patterns and driving scenarios, platoons acquire to communicate with each other via different network topologies such as bidirectional, bidirectional-leader, predecessor- leader following and so on. However, the communication channels in cyber space are prone to cyber-attacks such as false position attack, collision attack, GPS spoofing and etc. Therefore, we begin by discussing about the overall structure of the platoons both in the physical and cyber space, and the related challenges will be introduced briefly. Afterwards, various cyber-attacks and their classification regarding platoon systems are examined.

Kosar Behnia, Amirkabir University of Technology

Attack Classification and Detection

This section examines various attack structure such as replay attack, DoS attack, covert attack and zero dynamic attack. The knowledge required to implement different attacks and the strengths and weaknesses of each type of attack are reviewed. The importance of attack detection algorithms is stated. Then, algorithms to detect and prevent cyber-attacks such as water marking algorithms, changing systems dynamic algorithms based on switching control will be examined. Moreover, suitable conditions for the effectiveness of detection and prevention algorithms are compared.

Dr. Iman Sharifi, Amirkabir University of Technology

Dr. Mehran Dibaji, MIT, Department of ME

Resilient Control Approaches

The vehicles in platoons are subject to different types of cyber- attacks. The aim of the attackers is to mitigate the performance of the designed control systems which further leads to catastrophic failures. To ensure safe operation of the system under attacks, it is acquired to design resilient control strategies. There are a lot of researches toward this issue ranging from the graph-based methods, such as WMSR, reputation-based resilient control strategies, to general methods which are based on classic control theories such as robust control methods, adaptive control and etc. In this part, we aim at discussing novel approaches toward designing safe and resilient control strategies for platoons which are vulnerable to cyber-attacks.

Workshop IV
- Speakers

Prof. Heidar Ali Talebi, Amirkabir University of Technology

Bio: Heidar Ali Talebi received his BS degree in Electronics from Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran, in 1988, MSc degree in Electronics (with first class honours) from Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran, in 1991, and his PhD degree in Electrical and Computer Engineering from Concordia University, Montreal, QC, Canada, in 1997. He held several postdoctoral and research positions at Concordia University and University of Western Ontario, before joining Amirkabir University of Technology in 1999 where he is currently a professor. From 2002 to 2004, he also served as the Head of Control Systems Group in Amirkabir University. His research interests include control, robotics, fault diagnosis and recovery, intelligent systems, adaptive control, nonlinear control and real-time systems.

Dr. Iman Sharifi, Amirkabir University of Technology

Bio: Iman Sharifi received his B.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering from Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran, in 2009. He was exempt from national M.Sc. entrance exam, as a talented student. He also received the M.Sc. degree as first ranked student in Electrical Engineering from Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran, in 2012. Therefore, he exempted from national PhD entrance exam as talented student. He is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree in the Center of Excellence of Robotics and Nonlinear Control at Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran. Moreover, he is a visiting doctoral researcher in the Telerobotic and Biorobotic Systems Lab of University of Alberta, Canada. His research interests are Nonlinear Control Systems, Medical Teleoperation Systems (Tele-rehabilitation and Tele-surgery), Real-time Computing Systems, Embedded Systems Based on New OS such as Android.

Dr. Mehran Dibaji, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering

Bio: Seyed Mehran Dibaji received the B.Sc. degrees in electrical engineering and in applied mathematics and M.Sc. degree in electrical and control engineering, all from Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran, in 2009, 2012, and 2012, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree in computational intelligence and systems science from the Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan, where his dissertation was about resilient consensus of multiagent systems. Dr. Dibaji is currently a Postdoctoral Associate in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA, where he is working on distributed control of power systems. His research interests include resilient control of networks, control of power systems, cyber-physical systems, and distributed algorithms.

Elnaz Firouzmand, Amirkabir University of Technology

Bio: Elnaz Firouzmand received her B.Sc. degrees in both Electrical Engineering and Biomedical Engineering from Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT), Tehran, Iran, in 2017 and 2018. As a talented student, she was exempt from national M.Sc. and Ph.D. entrance exams and got acceptance in M.Sc. and Ph.D. in control systems from Electrical Engineering of AUT, in 2017 and 2020, respectively. She is currently working toward her Ph.D. degree under supervision of Professor H.A. Talebi and Dr. Iman Sharifi. Her research interests are autonomous vehicles, cyber-security of platoon vehicles and formal method based control.

Kosar Behnia, Amirkabir University of Technology

Bio: Kosar Behnia received the B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering from Amirkabir University of Technology,Tehran, Iran in 2018 and 2020 respectively. She is currently a PhD researcher at the Amirkabir University of Technology. Her research interests include machine Learning, artificial intelligence and cyber-security.

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