Workshop II
- Enhancing Security of Cyber-Physical System

• Robotic and Real-time Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering Amirkabir University
• 5th Industry Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering Amirkabir University
• Technology and Innovation Development Center
• IEEE Iran Section

• Prof. Heidar Ali Talebi1 (Professor)
• Dr. Iman Sharifi (Assistant Professor)
• Dr. Hamid Reza Baghaei (Associate Research Professor)
• Kosar Behnia1 (PhD student)
• Elnaz Firouzmand1 (PhD student)

Resilient control, Cyber-security, Cyber-physical systems

In today world, the control of physical systems is no longer based on traditional methods and all of the processes can be connected and controlled by the communication links. These systems which are resulted from the integration and coordination of cyber and physical component are called cyber-Physical system (CPS). These systems have numerous applications in real-life and industries such as mobility and transportation, health care, smart homes and smart grids, to name a few.

Unfortunately, cyber physical systems are vulnerable to cyber attacks. Attacker can hijack the communication links and disrupt system performance.
In recent years, different type of attack has been proposed to damage cyber physical systems including: DoS, Replay, Zero dynamic and Covert attack. Each of these attacks needs access to specific communication links. Numerous cyber attacks has happened in recent years including: Stuxnet attack. These attacks cause lots of financial and human losses for example Stuxnet caused serious damage to Iran's nuclear infrastructure and delayed Iran's nuclear program for two years. Detecting cyber attacks is a challenging research area. One of the main challenges in this area is dealing with unknown attacks. Every day, attackers find new attacks. Hence, Defense strategies should be able to detect even attacks that has not happened yet.
Moreover, Some of the cyber attacks cannot be detected by simply monitoring available signals. Therefore, Attacker can easily damage system without even be detected. To overcome these problems, various strategies to make control systems resilient to cyber attacks has been proposed including W-MSR and reputation algorithm. Usage of defense algorithms improve cyber security of the underlying CPS system. Nowadays different countries invest on finding proper defense strategies to prevent catastrophic effects of cyber attacks.

In this workshop, first, the definition of cyber physical systems and importance of security in the design procedure is given. Then, various types of cyber-attacks based on different categories is investigated. Finally, state of the art detection, prevention and resilient control methods are presented. The simulation and implementation of defense algorithms will be also presented.
The detailed agenda of the workshop is given as follows:

• Definition of Cyber-Physical Systems
• Importance of security in Cyber-Physical Systems
• Enhancing security against cyber attacks:
- False data injection attack
- Zero dynamic attack
- Replay attack
- Denial of Service attack
- Covert attack
- Quasi-Covert attack
- Controllable Covert attacks in Multi-Agent Systems
• Applications of cyber-security in CPS
- Cyber-Security in power systems
- Cyber-Security in Autonomous vehicles
• Case study and paper presentation
- Resilient control strategy
- Simulation and implementation

The materials outlined in the previous section will be delivered based on the following plan in four parts, with approximately one hour for each section.

Prof. Heidar Ali Talebi, Amirkabir University of Technology

Introduction to Workshop and Opening Talk:
In this section, the goals and generalities of the workshop are presented. First, the general definition of cyber physical systems and their importance in control systems are examined. Then, Detection and resilient control approaches to detect and prevent cyber-attacks will be explained, generally. In this section, participants are expected to grasp the general knowledge about cyber physical systems and the corresponding cyber-security issues.

Dr. Iman Sharifi, Amirkabir University of Technology

Importance of Security in Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT):
Industrial processes are subject to different types of cyber-attacks. The aim of the attackers is to mitigate the performance of the designed control systems which further leads to catastrophic failures. To ensure safe operation of the system under attacks, it is acquired to design resilient control strategies. In this part, we aim at pinpointing security concerns in IIoT and 5G. Moreover, a comparison between communication layers and their susceptibility to cyber attacks is presented.

Elnaz Firouzmand, Amirkabir University of Technology

Kosar Behnia, Amirkabir University of Technology

Attack Classification and Detection:
First, this section examines various attack structures such as replay attack, DoS attack, (Quasi-)covert attack, and etc. The knowledge required to implement different attacks and the strengths and weaknesses of each type of attack are reviewed. Finally, various types of cyber-attacks are categorized from different perspectives. Second, the importance of attack detection algorithms is stated, and algorithms to detect and prevent cyber-attacks such as water marking algorithms will be examined. Moreover, suitable conditions for the effectiveness of detection and prevention algorithms are compared. To recap, resilient approaches including graph-based methods, such as WMSR, reputation-based resilient control strategies, and methods which are based on classic control theories such as robust control methods, adaptive control and etc. are presented.

Dr. Hamid Reza Baghaei, Amirkabir University of Technology

Cyber-Resiliency and Data-Driven Management Aspects of Conventional and Power Electronic-based Power Systems:
Cyber-Resiliency and Data-Driven Management Aspects of Conventional and Power Electronic-based Power Systems
With the increasing penetration of large-scale power electronics devices, including renewable generations interfaced with converters, the power systems become gradually power-electronics-dominant, and correspondingly, their dynamical behavior changes substantially. Due to the fast dynamics of converters, such as the AC current controller, the quasi-stationary state approximation, widely used in power systems, is no longer appropriate and should be reexamined. Besides, multi-microgrids (or microgrid clusters) consist of several individual (AC or DC) microgrids, which are connected through bidirectional interlink (DC/DC or AC/DC) converters. Despite these numerous advantages, e.g., increased reliability, designing and implementing an appropriate control, management, and protection system for multi-microgrids remain significant challenges. For the sake of smooth integration of distributed/renewable energy resources (DERs/RERs), energy storage systems (ESSs) and electric vehicles, and stable operation of the power grid, we require robust and reliable supervisory control based on the critical role of IoE in energy management and monitoring of the smart grids. In this regard, the IoE has revolutionized the research and practice of energy efficiency for industrial and smart city applications. The data exchange between grid components and data-driven solutions in smart grid operation will enable optimized bi-directional power flow between the utility grid and prosumers with RERs. Along with building energy demand, the transport sector holds promise in achieving the overall optimization of the energy systems. This evolving set of grid component databases (gathered by smart meters, automatic meter readings (AMRs), intelligent electronic devices (IEDs), and phasor measurement units (PMUs)) can be exploited to develop data-driven solutions by combining AI and ML and data analytics. Useful information from this data can be extracted for grid operators using advanced data analysis tools. Microgrids can be considered cyber-physical systems (CPSs) due to implementing measurement devices, communication networks, and control layers. Consequently, microgrids are also vulnerable to different kinds of cyberattacks such as false data injection, denial of service, hijacking, deception, and replay attacks. Thus, new strategies for the detection and mitigation of cyberattacks are required. In this talk, we discuss the issues regarding the concepts of the Internet of microgrids, data-driven management of microgrids, and their cyber resiliency aspects.

The audience of this workshop includes enthusiastic students and educated researchers in the field of cyber physical systems security, microgrid, autonomous vehicles and Internet of Things. Therefore, this workshop provides a rare opportunity to widen their knowledge by becoming familiar with the state-of-the-art algorithms in the field of cyber security for cyber physical systems.
This workshop can also be very helpful for graduate and PhD students. They can expand their horizons on the communication issues and present more practical thesis and projects.
Professors can also share their knowledge and experience in this field by attending this workshop. Finally, Q&A provides a good opportunity to solve the audience’s problems.
At Robotic and Real-time Lab of Electrical Engineering Department of Amirkabir University, we are pleased to cooperate with professional people, researchers and those students who are interested in doing research in this field and this workshop could be a great starting point for future collaborations!

Workshop IV
- Speakers

Prof. Heidar Ali Talebi, Amirkabir University of Technology

Bio: Heidar Ali Talebi received his BS degree in Electronics from Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran, in 1988, MSc degree in Electronics (with first class honours) from Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran, in 1991, and his PhD degree in Electrical and Computer Engineering from Concordia University, Montreal, QC, Canada, in 1997. He held several postdoctoral and research positions at Concordia University and University of Western Ontario, before joining Amirkabir University of Technology in 1999 where he is currently a professor. From 2002 to 2004, he also served as the Head of Control Systems Group in Amirkabir University. His research interests include control, robotics, fault diagnosis and recovery, intelligent systems, adaptive control, nonlinear control and real-time systems.

Dr. Iman Sharifi, Amirkabir University of Technology

Bio: Iman Sharifi received his B.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering from Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran, in 2009. He was exempt from national M.Sc. entrance exam, as a talented student. He also received the M.Sc. degree as first ranked student in Electrical Engineering from Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran, in 2012. Therefore, he exempted from national PhD entrance exam as talented student. He is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree in the Center of Excellence of Robotics and Nonlinear Control at Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran. Moreover, he is a visiting doctoral researcher in the Telerobotic and Biorobotic Systems Lab of University of Alberta, Canada. His research interests are Nonlinear Control Systems, Medical Teleoperation Systems (Tele-rehabilitation and Tele-surgery), Real-time Computing Systems, Embedded Systems Based on New OS such as Android.

Dr. Hamid Reza Baghaei, Iran Grid Secure Operation Research Center, Electrical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology

Bio: Hamid Reza Baghaee was born in Kashan, Iran, in June 1984 and received his Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from Amirkabir University Technology (AUT) in 2017. From 2007 to 2017, he was a teaching and research assistant in the department of electrical engineering of AUT. He is the author of two books, three published book chapters, 80 ISI-ranked journal papers (mostly in IEEE, IET, and Elsevier journals), 55 conference papers, and the owner of a registered patent. In November 2021, his book entitled “Microgrids and Methods of Analysis” was selected by the Technical Committee of Iran Ministry of Energy (MOE) as the “Best Book of the year in Power and Energy Industry.” He has many HOT and HIGHLY-CITED papers among his journal papers, based on SciVal and Web of Science statistics. His special fields of interest are micro and smart grids, cyber-physical systems, application of power electronics in power systems, distributed generation and renewable energy resources, FACTS CUSTOM Power devices and HVDC systems, power system operation and control, real-time simulation of power systems, microgrids, and power electronic converters, and application of artificial intelligence in power systems. Dr. Baghaee is also the winner of four national and international prizes, as the best dissertation award, from the Iranian scientific organization of smart grids (ISOSG) in December 2017, Iranian energy association (IEA) in February 2018, AUT in December 2018, and IEEE Iran Section in May 2019 for his Ph.D. dissertation. In August 2019, he joined AUT as an associate research professor in the department of electrical engineering. He is the project coordinator of the AUT Pilot Microgrid Project as one of the sub-projects of the Iran Grand (National) Smart Grid Project. He has been a co-supervisor of more than Ph.D. and M.Sc. students since 2017. He was a short-term scientist with CERN and ABB, Switzerland. He was selected as the top 1% reviewer of engineering in September 2018 and the top 1% reviewer of engineering and cross-field in September 2019. Dr. Baghaee is a member and secretary chair at the IEEE Iran Section communication committee and member of IEEE, IEEE Smart Grid Community, IEEE Internet of Things Technical Community, IEEE Big Data Community, and IEEE Sensors Council. Since August 2021, he has been elected as a member of the board and chairman of the committee on publications and conferences at the Iran Scientific Organization of Smart Grids (ISOSG) and a member of the IEEE PES Transmission Subcommittee. He is also the reviewer of several IEEE and IET journals and guest editor of several special issues in IEEE, IET, Elsevier, MDPI, and scientific program committees of several IEEE conferences. From December 2020, he has served as an associate editor of the IET Journal of engineering. He has also been selected as the best and outstanding review of several journals such as IEEE Transactions on Power System (Top 0.66% of reviewers, in 2020), Elsevier Control Engineering Practice (in 2018, 2019, and 2020), and Wiley International Transaction on Electrical Energy Systems in 2020, and the Pablon best reviewer in Engineering (in 2018), and both engineering and cross-field (in 2019). He has been selected as the Star Reviewer of IEEE JESTPE and IEEE Power Electronics Society in 2020, commemorated, and presented during the IEEE ECCE 2021 conference in October in Vancouver, Canada. He has also been listed in the 2020 edition of the top 2% scientists in the field of ENERGY according to the “Science Wide Author Databases of Standardized Citation Indicators.”

Elnaz Firouzmand, Amirkabir University of Technology

Bio: Elnaz Firouzmand received her B.Sc. degrees in both Electrical Engineering and Biomedical Engineering from Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT), Tehran, Iran, in 2017 and 2018. As a talented student, she was exempt from national M.Sc. and Ph.D. entrance exams and got acceptance in M.Sc. and Ph.D. in control systems from Electrical Engineering of AUT, in 2017 and 2020, respectively. She is currently working toward her Ph.D. degree under supervision of Professor H.A. Talebi and Dr. Iman Sharifi. Her research interests are autonomous vehicles, cyber-security of platoon vehicles and formal method based control.

Kosar Behnia, Amirkabir University of Technology

Bio: Kosar Behnia received the B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering from Amirkabir University of Technology,Tehran, Iran in 2018 and 2020 respectively. She is currently a PhD researcher at the Amirkabir University of Technology. Her research interests include machine Learning, artificial intelligence and cyber-security.

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